Essay writing History Causes of WW1

     Essay writing final version

“Naval rivalry was the main cause of WW1.” How far do you agree with this statement? Explain.


Naval race was very important by leading to war. However, there are other causes that were as important as this one. In this essay, I will say how far I agree with the statement, in addition to how each cause contributed to the start of the war by creating tension.

First, the naval race was a very important cause and created tension between countries because it showed that the empires were preparing for a future war. In this reason, which led to war, were involved the German empire and Great Britain. What happened was that these two empires were in a kind of competition between them to see who had the most powerful naval army. This was between them because they were the two empires with the most powerful naval army in the world. This was because, for the two of them, it was essential to have a strong naval force. In the case of Germany, as she was a growing empire, she had to expand, but in Europe countries had strong military forces so, by ship, they could travel to other places to conquer. On the other hand, the British empire, as Great Britain was an island, she had to travel to all her colonies and, as she was an established empire, Britain also moved her troops.

As I said before, the naval race was a very important cause, but in my opinion, the other causes were as important as it because they all contributed to the start of the war by creating tension. In the group of the long term causes, we have the unification of Germany, the unification of Italy, the Franco-Prussian war, Imperialism, Alliances and Nationalism. In the group of the short term causes, without mentioning the naval race,  we have the first and second Moroccan crisis, the arms race, the Balkans crisis, the murder at Sarajevo and, as well as the group of the long term causes, we have alliances. The unification of Germany influenced a lot because, after this happened, she would start to have ambition of power and the intention to grow, which later on she did. The unification of Italy influenced because, as well as Germany did, she would have the intention to grow. The Franco-Prussian war was very important because it was one of the events which led to Germany becoming unified. It also created tension between Germany and France. In addition, this event was one of the reasons why the Schlieffen plan was taken into account. As regards imperialism, in my opinion, without it war would never have happened because each country might have their own land and their own government. There were three types of empires: the decaying, the established and the growing empires. This contributed a lot to the start of the war because, as the growing empires had the intention to grow, they attacked the other empires and countries with military forces. For example, Germany, a growing empire, attacked other countries and empires to expand. Nationalism created tension and fear because the ethnic groups would have to fight the empire they are under the control of with military forces and with help of their alliances. For example, the ethnic groups under the control of the Ottoman empire fought her to get their independence. The first Moroccan crisis created tension because, as Germany and France wanted Morocco, this would make their rivalry stronger. Also, in a conference in Algeciras, Spain,most of Europe’s empires and countries attended . In there, these countries agreed that all countries should have trade advantages with Morocco but France with some more. Germany felt humiliated because their plan to conquer Morocco went wrong, so her anger increased. The second Moroccan crisis, as well as the first Moroccan crisis, created tension, especially between France and Germany, because, as the sultan of Morocco asked for help to France to take out the rebel tribes out of Rez, Germany felt humiliated and jealous so she sent an aggressive answer, which was a gunboat. When Britain saw this situation, she thought that the German empire would build a naval base in Agadir so, in sign of Peace, she gave Germany some lands in Congo, Central Africa. At the end, France kept Morocco. The arms race, in which France, Russia, Germany and Great Britain were involved, created tension because this showed that empires were preparing for a future war. The Balkans crisis created tension between the ethnic groups of the balkans and the Austro-Hungarian empire because, as Serbia was inspiring Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was under the control of Austria-Hungary, to get independent from the Austro-Hungarians, this would result in a chain reaction, inspiring other countries under the control of the Austro-Hungarian empire to get independent from her. The murder at Sarajevo was very important because it was the event that gave the excuse to Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia. Finally, the alliances created tension and fear because they were pacts between countries which consisted in always helping and defending the other. This also encouraged countries to invade others, as Austria-Hungary did with Germany to send the ultimatum to Serbia.

In conclusion, I think the statement is wrong because, in my opinion, all the causes had the same importance because they all contributed to the start of the war by creating tension.

Review of “Games at Twilight” by Tomás Braun, Bautista Buljevich and Francisco Montoya

   Review of “Games at Twilight” by Anita Desai


This wonderful story takes place in a too hot, sunny day. Some children were inside their house in this terrible summer heat. The author uses “too” to indicate that it was not a comfortable day, it was an oppressive day: “Their faces were red and bloated”. In this quotation, we can see that, as it was too hot, they suffered a lot. After the kids begged to go outside, they were finally released from the house, with the condition of just staying in the porch and on the veranda: “A band of parrots suddenly fell out of the eucalyptus tree”. This shows that their reaction was so crazy to the extent to be compared with animals. Finally, between line 1 and 38, we can find language used to express suffocation: “They feel that their lungs were stuffed with cotton wool”. This expresses that kids were feeling like in a prison.

At the first two pages. the story concentrates in three characters: Raghu, Manu, and Mira. Mira is the oldest girl in the family. She is called the “motherly” of the kids because, as she is the oldest, she acts like a mother. Manu is the smallest of the family. We can say he is innocent because he’s just a little boy and he’s inoffensive. He admires the older kids, specially Raghu. Finally, the book mentions Raghu. He is one of the oldest of the family. He is tall and has long, hefty, hairy, football player legs. He’s a bad loser, aggressive and a bully. He has as an objective to make the other children feel scared of him. Younger kids admire him.

Then, the story focuses on one character, Ravi. At first, he felt scared, desperate and felt the desire to be older. He was hiding in a flower spot but, as he heard Raghu coming, he entered a mysterious shed. This shed was dark, spooky, full of animal life and with forgotten things. This is important to Ravi’s feelings because they are symbols of death and shows that Ravi has been forgotten as the things inside the shed. In spite of this, he felt he was a winner after Raghu didn’t find him: “Ravi shook, then shivered with delight, with self-congratulation”. Here we can see Ravi was proud of himself and expected to win against Raghu for the first time. Also, it gives us the foreshadowing of what’s going to happened next.

When Ravi was inside the shed, as we have already said, he felt he finally was going to defeat Raghu and he felt protected when he heard him coming, but, at the same time, he felt scared because of being in such a dark and spooky, full of animals with a muffled smell place. Inside the shed, Ravi started daydreaming about how was going to be the moment when he would win the game. Although he was daydreaming things which happened on real life, he decided to stay inside the shed and life went on: “The parents would sit out on the lawn on cane basket chairs and watch them as they tore around the garden”. In this quotation we can see what Ravi was daydreaming about. When he was thinking what would it be when he reached victory, he thought that his uncle would buy him a whole chocolate bar for him, he would defeat Raghu and he would be the winner in a group of older kids than him.

When twilight approached, he started to hear the children singing and chanting, he could saw purple shadows of the shed, the sound of water falling and the lawn was shut off his view. He had forgotten he had to touch the den, he had forgotten the other part of the game. He felt forgotten and abandoned. When he was outside the shed, the children were playing other games. He felt rage and pity inside, he had tears in his face, he felt miserable while shouting: “Den! Den! Den!”. Moreover, he felt he was forgotten as well as the things inside the shed. When the others saw this situation, they all stared at him, they didn’t recognize him. They were wondering what was he doing, what did he pretended to do with that “wild animal howling”. After this, the children started to make an arc and chanted: “The grass is green, the rose is red; remember me when I am dead, dead, dead, dead”. This symbolises that what was dead was Ravi´s childhood and innocence. He felt upset

Essay Senior 1 and Senior 2

Essay question:Explore how the writer of “Passion” uses nature to express how she feels about love”


In the poem “Passion”, many romantic features are used, such as nature and passion.The writer uses nature to express her ideas about love through a spiritual voice, the sky’s voice. This spiritual voice was trying to convince the speaker, who was a woman, to understand that love isn’t the only thing that matters and that the only thing she needs is nature.

Before the spiritual voice talked to her, she was deeply depressed. The lady was lying on a peaceful place, where she interacted with nature by being one with the universal spirits. However, she found difficult to express her feelings by speaking or writing because she was emotionally damaged. This means that she was suffering physically as well as emotionally and she felt peace outside but chaos inside. She was in this situation, feeling heartbroken and abandoned, cause she was waiting for her love to call her but he didn’t. Here is evidence of that: “Through the mute telephone, my body grew weak with the well-known and mortal death, heartbreak.” In this quotation, the writer expresses through a metaphor that her heart was broken and she felt weak because she was waiting for a call, which would be from her love, and never received it. In addition, the voice felt far away from her lover.

In the fourth stanza, the writer introduces the sky, which is represented as a spiritual voice. This voice was more familiar than love itself. “You have what you desire”. In this quotation, we can see that the sky tells the desperate woman that she doesn´t need love, that nature is what she truly needs and wishes. After this, the sky speaks to the voice and makes her see the world in a different way. She forgets all of the sadness inside her, and realises that she only needs what it’s outside, the stars, the seas, clouds and winds, the thing which she had grew up with and what she has always been surrounded by, nature. Here is a quotation of her connection to nature: “This your nature is”. The quotation is proving that the woman and nature are very connected and they are like one. Then, the sky says: “Lift up your heart again without fear. Sleep in the tomb, or breathe the living air”, so the sky gives two options. The first one: Keep the same feeling sad. Second one: Leave the idea that love is everything she has, and go on with her life. She realises that she doesn’t need her boyfriend that she has been waiting for to call her, taking away her passion to write. So, she leaves behind her boyfriend and keeps nature inside, now her emotional war has finished.

In conclusion, nature is an essential factor in this poem because the writer expresses her feelings about love through her love for it. The sky, which is the spiritual voice, is one of the elements that represents nature.

Tomás Braun, Álvaro Ballesteros and Martín Ananía