Statement: How successful was Wilson on achieving his aims at Versailles? Explain your answer.
As an idealist, Wilson had lots of aims ,which he presented in the Paris Peace Conference, to achieve a fair and lasting peace in the world. However, not all of them were accomplished. In this essay, I will say how successful Wilson was in achieving his aims at Versailles by saying which aims he had, which ones were accepted and which ones not.
Before the war ended, in 1918, Woodrow Wilson presented some aims to achieve world peace called “the fourteen points” in the United States’ congress. This ones were: no secret treaties, open seas, free trade between countries, disarmament, colonies to have a say in their future, German troops to leave Russia, Independence for Belgium, France to regain Alsace-Lorraine, Frontier between Austria and Italy to be adjusted, Self-determination for countries from Eastern Europe, Serbia to have access to the sea, Self-determination for the people of the Turkish empire, Poland to be independent and to have access to the sea and the League of Nations, an international organization to assure lasting peace and to save the world from another war, to be set up. Afterwards, during the post-war period, he established his principal aims for the conference: Don’t be too harsh on Germany, because she would recover and seek revenge in the future. Then, strengthen democracy in defeated countries, for example Germany. Also, to give self-determination to small countries that once had been part of the European empires and International cooperation, which is referred to the League of Nations.
On the one hand, many of these points were accepted. To begin with, one of the issues that was accepted was the League of Nations, starting to work in 1920. Then, open seas and independence for Poland. This new country was given part of Germany, but on one of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s territories and colonies, affirmed that Poland would be a new country and she would have a port in Danzig, city now controlled by the League of Nations. Also, France regained Alsace-Lorraine, because in the Franco-Prussian war Germany had taken it from the French empire. Finally, disarmament and self-determination to small countries that once had been part of the European empires were taken into account but only for Germany.
On the other hand, there were some aims which were not respected. Firstly, Wilson did not achieve a fair and lasting peace, because in the treaty the big three obligated Germany to accept the guilt of starting the war. Secondly, free access to seas was not reached by Woodrow because they prohibited the access to sea to Germany. Thirdly, free trade could not be a possibility because many of the countries had their economy in a very bad shape, mostly Germany who had to pay reparations. Fourthly, strengthen democracy for defeated countries because the German government was not strong at all after the treaty. Lastly, disarmament and self-determination to small countries that once had been part of the European empires were not completely reached because it was only applied to one country.
To conclude, Wilson was not so successful in achieving his aims in the treaty because some of them were not respected and some of them were not even taken into account. Also, he searched a long and lasting peace, but the only thing that he got was a whole country filled with the desire of revenge.
Essay writing final version
“Naval rivalry was the main cause of WW1.” How far do you agree with this statement? Explain.
Naval race was very important by leading to war. However, there are other causes that were as important as this one. In this essay, I will say how far I agree with the statement, in addition to how each cause contributed to the start of the war by creating tension.
First, the naval race was a very important cause and created tension between countries because it showed that the empires were preparing for a future war. In this reason, which led to war, were involved the German empire and Great Britain. What happened was that these two empires were in a kind of competition between them to see who had the most powerful naval army. This was between them because they were the two empires with the most powerful naval army in the world. This was because, for the two of them, it was essential to have a strong naval force. In the case of Germany, as she was a growing empire, she had to expand, but in Europe countries had strong military forces so, by ship, they could travel to other places to conquer. On the other hand, the British empire, as Great Britain was an island, she had to travel to all her colonies and, as she was an established empire, Britain also moved her troops.
As I said before, the naval race was a very important cause, but in my opinion, the other causes were as important as it because they all contributed to the start of the war by creating tension. In the group of the long term causes, we have the unification of Germany, the unification of Italy, the Franco-Prussian war, Imperialism, Alliances and Nationalism. In the group of the short term causes, without mentioning the naval race, we have the first and second Moroccan crisis, the arms race, the Balkans crisis, the murder at Sarajevo and, as well as the group of the long term causes, we have alliances. The unification of Germany influenced a lot because, after this happened, she would start to have ambition of power and the intention to grow, which later on she did. The unification of Italy influenced because, as well as Germany did, she would have the intention to grow. The Franco-Prussian war was very important because it was one of the events which led to Germany becoming unified. It also created tension between Germany and France. In addition, this event was one of the reasons why the Schlieffen plan was taken into account. As regards imperialism, in my opinion, without it war would never have happened because each country might have their own land and their own government. There were three types of empires: the decaying, the established and the growing empires. This contributed a lot to the start of the war because, as the growing empires had the intention to grow, they attacked the other empires and countries with military forces. For example, Germany, a growing empire, attacked other countries and empires to expand. Nationalism created tension and fear because the ethnic groups would have to fight the empire they are under the control of with military forces and with help of their alliances. For example, the ethnic groups under the control of the Ottoman empire fought her to get their independence. The first Moroccan crisis created tension because, as Germany and France wanted Morocco, this would make their rivalry stronger. Also, in a conference in Algeciras, Spain,most of Europe’s empires and countries attended . In there, these countries agreed that all countries should have trade advantages with Morocco but France with some more. Germany felt humiliated because their plan to conquer Morocco went wrong, so her anger increased. The second Moroccan crisis, as well as the first Moroccan crisis, created tension, especially between France and Germany, because, as the sultan of Morocco asked for help to France to take out the rebel tribes out of Rez, Germany felt humiliated and jealous so she sent an aggressive answer, which was a gunboat. When Britain saw this situation, she thought that the German empire would build a naval base in Agadir so, in sign of Peace, she gave Germany some lands in Congo, Central Africa. At the end, France kept Morocco. The arms race, in which France, Russia, Germany and Great Britain were involved, created tension because this showed that empires were preparing for a future war. The Balkans crisis created tension between the ethnic groups of the balkans and the Austro-Hungarian empire because, as Serbia was inspiring Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was under the control of Austria-Hungary, to get independent from the Austro-Hungarians, this would result in a chain reaction, inspiring other countries under the control of the Austro-Hungarian empire to get independent from her. The murder at Sarajevo was very important because it was the event that gave the excuse to Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia. Finally, the alliances created tension and fear because they were pacts between countries which consisted in always helping and defending the other. This also encouraged countries to invade others, as Austria-Hungary did with Germany to send the ultimatum to Serbia.
In conclusion, I think the statement is wrong because, in my opinion, all the causes had the same importance because they all contributed to the start of the war by creating tension.
Essay question: “Explore how the writer of “Passion” uses nature to express how she feels about love”
In the poem “Passion”, many romantic features are used, such as nature and passion.The writer uses nature to express her ideas about love through a spiritual voice, the sky’s voice. This spiritual voice was trying to convince the speaker, who was a woman, to understand that love isn’t the only thing that matters and that the only thing she needs is nature.
Before the spiritual voice talked to her, she was deeply depressed. The lady was lying on a peaceful place, where she interacted with nature by being one with the universal spirits. However, she found difficult to express her feelings by speaking or writing because she was emotionally damaged. This means that she was suffering physically as well as emotionally and she felt peace outside but chaos inside. She was in this situation, feeling heartbroken and abandoned, cause she was waiting for her love to call her but he didn’t. Here is evidence of that: “Through the mute telephone, my body grew weak with the well-known and mortal death, heartbreak.” In this quotation, the writer expresses through a metaphor that her heart was broken and she felt weak because she was waiting for a call, which would be from her love, and never received it. In addition, the voice felt far away from her lover.
In the fourth stanza, the writer introduces the sky, which is represented as a spiritual voice. This voice was more familiar than love itself. “You have what you desire”. In this quotation, we can see that the sky tells the desperate woman that she doesn´t need love, that nature is what she truly needs and wishes. After this, the sky speaks to the voice and makes her see the world in a different way. She forgets all of the sadness inside her, and realises that she only needs what it’s outside, the stars, the seas, clouds and winds, the thing which she had grew up with and what she has always been surrounded by, nature. Here is a quotation of her connection to nature: “This your nature is”. The quotation is proving that the woman and nature are very connected and they are like one. Then, the sky says: “Lift up your heart again without fear. Sleep in the tomb, or breathe the living air”, so the sky gives two options. The first one: Keep the same feeling sad. Second one: Leave the idea that love is everything she has, and go on with her life. She realises that she doesn’t need her boyfriend that she has been waiting for to call her, taking away her passion to write. So, she leaves behind her boyfriend and keeps nature inside, now her emotional war has finished.
In conclusion, nature is an essential factor in this poem because the writer expresses her feelings about love through her love for it. The sky, which is the spiritual voice, is one of the elements that represents nature.
Tomás Braun, Álvaro Ballesteros and Martín Ananía
William Blake tackles the theme of love with two opposite ideas about it. He expresses his ideas through personification.
In the first stanza, Blake uses a clod of clay to express his positive ideas about love. She’s flexible and positive. She also represents innocence because, as she’s very new as a material, the author uses her to represent that she does not have experience with love so she explains her expectations. Her idea about it is that love is good, loyal and turns you into positive: “And it builds a heaven in hell’s despair”: In this line, Blake shows with hyperbolic language that when someone is selfish and negative, when you find love it turns you into positive, generous and gives you happiness.
In the third stanza, Blake uses a pebble to express his negative ideas about love. He’s pessimistic and harsh. He also represents experience because, as it has lots of years as a material, the writer uses him to represent that he’s experienced in love so in the poem he tells his opinion about it. His idea about it is that love is selfish, negative and makes you suffer, “Love seeketh only self to please”. In this quotation we can see that, through the personification of a pebble, Blake now is expressing that love is selfish, it only searches satisfying oneself.
In conclusion, Blake tackles the theme of love expressing two opposite ideas about it, using the personifications of a clod of clay, who symbolizes innocence, and a pebble, that symbolizes experience.